Today's world is relay on the Internet. And the Internet is all about sharing data and information. But as the internet grows sharing information was getting hard and vulnerable. To establish a secure and easy communication way, developers create API. API stands for Application Programming Interface. The concept of API was developed to establish Secure, Scalable, and Easy Data Transfer between two systems.
Types of API Architecture
We can distribute APIs based on their architecture. API architecture defines rules and guidelines for data sharing. There are mostly three API architectures are there:
REST means Representational State Transfer. Today the majority of APIs are built upon REST Architecture. REST APIs define guidelines for easy, scalable, and lightweight data transfer. APIs using these guidelines are called REST APIs. There are main five guidelines in REST Architecture.
How REST APIs Works
Client-Server Sepration - REST follows strict Client-Server Sepration. Request must come from Client and Response must sent from Server. This Response and Request condition should strictly followed by REST APIs. Client cannot respond and same Server cannot sent request.
Stateless - Each Client-Server interaction should be independent from current simultanious interactions as well as past interactions. The server should not store any current or previous data from client request.
Layered System - All the Requests and Responses must always be formatted the same way, even when passed through intermediate servers between the client and the API.
Cacheable - All server responses should indicate whether a provided resource can be cached by the client and for how long. Servers store frequently used data in cache to load them faster. Which largly improves performance of REST APIs.
SOAP means Simple Object Access Protocol. SOAP is Protocol as well as Architecture which is used for transmitting data across networks. SOAP protocol is standardized by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It utilizes XML (Extensible Markup Language) to encode information. SOAP Protocol is much strictier in nature compare to REST. This strict behavious makes SOAP APIs more secure than REST. But this strict nature code-heavy and harder to implement. SOAP messages are larger and more complex in nature which makes them slower in Performace. SOAP APIs mostly used for internal data transfer and Security Intensive transfer. One of the biggest advantage of SOAP APIs are they works on almost every communitcation protocol. (REST APIs only works with HTTP Protocol).
How SOAP APIs Works
SOAP Protocols defines strict communication rules. W3C defines several standards to control every aspact of the data exchange. Below are some standards that SOAP uses:
WS-Security specifies security measures like using unique identifiers called tokens
WS-Addressing requires including routing information as metadata
WS-Reliable Messaging standardizes error handling in SOAP messaging
WSDL describes the scope and function of SOAP web services
While sending HTTP request, we must need to wrap our request to SOAP Envelope. SOAP Envelope modifies the HTTP content as per SOAP requirements. This capability of SOAP Envelope enables SOAP to use wide range of protocols like HTTP, TCP, SMTP and ICMP. However, SOAP web services always returns response in XML Format only.
RPC means Remort Procedural Call. RPC protocols uses to invokes scripts on server. It is like executing block of code on another server. RPC is very rarely used. Hence you will not see it on day to day basis.
Difference Between REST API and SOAP API
|Representational State Transfer||Simple Object Access Protocol|
|REST is an architecture||SOAP is a protocol|
|REST only works with HTTP Protocol||SOAP works on any transfer protocol|
|REST widely used JSON. But supports XML, Plain|
|Text and HTML as well||SOAP only supports XML|
|REST has faster in performance||SOAP is slower in performance|
|REST is easy to scale||SOAP is harder to scale|
|REST Supports encryption without affecting performance||SOAP Supports encryption but affairs on performance|
|REST mostly used in Public APIs||SOAP is used for Internal APIs. Where Security is top-most priority|
Similirities Between REST API and SOAP API
REST and SOAP both APIs describes rules and standards for data transfer.
REST and SOAP both uses HTTP Protocol. (XML Supports other protocols as well)
REST and SOAP both uses SSL/TLS for secured communication.
When to use SOAP API
Both REST and SOAP are powerful APIs. Always choose your requirement to finalize which one to choose. But You can consider below points to finalize:
High Security Requirements - If you are developing private APIs where security is your priority. And you are okay to lose some performance then SOAP might be the good option to go. Because SOAP APIs have Built-in compliance for ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability). Which makes SOAP APIs suitable for High-Security and High-Integrity requirements.
To Support Wide Range of Transfer Protocols - If your API need to support wide range of transfer protocols then SOAP is the best option. SOAP APIs are independent of Transfer Protocols. Apart from famous Protocols like HTTP, SOAP APIs supports SMTP (Simple Mail Trasfer Protocol), JMS (Java Messaging Services) and other transfer protocols as well.
Need Chained Operations - If your API is dependent on Chained Operation then SOAP is the only way to go. As SOAP APIs are statuful. This means the server stores information about Request and Response. This helps SOAP APIs to perform chained operations. Chained Operations require previous data to perform next request. This thing make SOAP APIs resource and Bandwidth heavy. But some tasks require the Chain Operations like Bank Transfers.
When to use REST APIs
REST APIs are usually used when you need flexibility and performance. Below are some use-cases in which REST is the best fit:
For Public APIs - REST APIs provides us Scalability, Performance and Flexibility which makes it best fit for Public APIs. Also REST Supports JSON format which is easy to understand and use. REST lacks some built-in security features but you can use third-party ways to overcome this flow.
When you need Light-weight and Performant APIs - REST APIs are best when you want APIs to be lightweight. REST APIs are stateless. Means they don't store any past request-response data. Server treats every request as brand new request. Which makes REST APIs Efficient and Performant. Data can be cached in REST APIs. Server stores frequently used data in cache which also helps in Performance. REST APIs also supports large number of Data Formats like JSON, XML,HTML and Plain Text.
Types of APIs
Till now we understand the importance and usage of APIs in our world. They are one of the important driving force of today's internet. Now let's talk about types of APIs. We can differenciate APIs in three major category:
Public APIs - Public APIs also known as Open APIs are available for public use. Any developer can access it, use it and read its documentation. Generally Public APIs are uses less authentication and less authorization to access its data. But some Public APIs offers a limited free tier and then based on volumes of calls they charges to developers as well. It is not like that all Public APIs are completely free. As a developer we use many Public APIs in our day to day life to make our apps feature rich. Some famous Public APIs are Random User Generator, Open Weather, and JSON Placeholder.
Private APIs - Private APIs also known as Internal APIs. These APIs usually used inside organization for its internla purposes. Private APIs never expose any kind of information to public. Also they are highly secured as well. Almost every major company have their Multiple Private APIs.
Partner APIs - Partner APIs are APIs which are paid APIs. These APIs are highly secured. Companies shared these APIs to customers who purchase their services. Only authorized customers gets the details of these APIs.
In conclusion, APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) play a crucial role in today's world, enabling secure and efficient data transfer between systems. They provide a standardized framework for communication, allowing developers to create applications that can interact with each other seamlessly. In this blog, we explored three major types of API architectures: REST APIs, SOAP APIs, and RPC APIs.
REST APIs, based on the Representational State Transfer architecture, are the most widely used APIs today. They offer a lightweight and scalable approach to data transfer, utilizing the HTTP protocol and JSON formatting. REST APIs follow the principles of client-server separation, uniform interface, statelessness, layered system, and cacheability. These guidelines contribute to their performance, ease of use, and compatibility.
SOAP APIs, on the other hand, are based on the Simple Object Access Protocol. SOAP is a more strict and heavyweight protocol, using XML for data encoding. SOAP APIs are known for their high security features and support for various communication protocols beyond HTTP. They adhere to standards such as WS-Security, WS-Addressing, WS-Reliable Messaging, and WSDL. SOAP APIs are commonly used for internal data transfer within organizations, where security is a top priority.
RPC APIs, which stands for Remote Procedure Call, are less commonly used in comparison to REST and SOAP APIs. RPC protocols enable the execution of scripts on remote servers, allowing for the invocation of code blocks on another system. While RPC APIs offer certain capabilities, they are not as prevalent in day-to-day use.
When comparing REST and SOAP APIs, REST APIs are favored for their performance, scalability, and flexibility. They are suitable for public APIs, as they support various data formats and provide lightweight communication. SOAP APIs, on the other hand, are recommended for scenarios with high-security requirements and the need to support a wide range of transfer protocols. SOAP APIs excel in scenarios where chained operations and compliance with ACID principles are necessary.
Ultimately, the choice between REST and SOAP APIs depends on the specific requirements of the project at hand. REST APIs are well-suited for public APIs and scenarios that prioritize performance and flexibility. SOAP APIs are ideal for internal APIs within organizations, where security is paramount, and when a wider range of transfer protocols is needed.
Lastly, we discussed the three major types of APIs: public APIs, private APIs, and partner APIs. Public APIs are openly available for use by developers and often provide limited free access, while private APIs are used internally within organizations and offer higher levels of security. Partner APIs are paid APIs that are shared with authorized customers and offer enhanced security measures.
In conclusion, APIs have revolutionized the way data is shared and have become an integral part of modern-day internet infrastructure. Understanding the different types of API architectures and their respective use cases allows developers to make informed decisions when designing and implementing their applications. The continuous advancement and adoption of APIs contribute to the growth and innovation of the digital landscape, enabling seamless integration and collaboration between diverse systems and services.
So, guys, That’s all you need to know about APIs. Please let me know if I miss something. I’ll be happy to learn from you. Till Then Keep Loving, Keep Coding. I’ll surely catch you up in the next article. Jai Hind, Vande Mataram 🇮🇳
Remember no teacher, no book, no video tutorial, or no blog can teach you everything. As one said Learning is Journey and Journey never ends. Just collect some data from here and there, read it, learn it, practice it, and try to apply it. Don’t feel hesitant that you can’t do that or you don’t know this concept or that concept. Remember every programmer was passed from the path on which you are walking right now. Remember Every Master was Once a Beginner. Work hard and Give your best.